The structure which supports the vertical roof to ensure overall stability and safety of a vehicle. It is located in between the front and rear doors on most vehicles. However, it may be located in another spot depending on the specific make or model.

Backup Assistance

A device installation which is usually one or more components used to help aid drivers as they operate their vehicles in reverse. These devices frequently include a back-up camera alongside a distance sensor to alert drivers they are getting too close to an obstacle. Backup assistance features often vary based on a vehicle, and many of these components are available as optional installations.

Balance Shaft Belt

This cogged belt is used to help calm, balance, and smooth out vibrations in an engine. Typically these belts are synchronized with an engine’s crankshaft to work in harmony. By working in synchronization, both systems can help to reduce or eliminate vehicular shaking.

Ball Joints

Built within the steering linkage and suspension system, these movable joints enable a vehicle to rotate between joined parts during steering. Ball joints are one of the components which give the steering mechanism its ability to remain fluid and easily controllable by the driver.

Bank Fee

Refer to “Acquisition Fee” for more information.

Base Price

The initial manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MSRP) of a vehicle prior to the installation of any optional components or features. This price does not include additional fees from the dealer such as the destination fee, advertising costs, or administrative charges.

Basic or Bumper-to-Bumper Warranty

The basic or standard vehicle warranty is typically coverage on automobiles which includes all major manufacturing issues, defects, engine failure or malfunction, and related problems. This warranty will generally cover any issues with the exception of normal wear and tear of vehicle parts and components. Other elements which are usually not covered are replacement costs for oil changes, air filter replacements, new wiper blades, replaced brake pads, and related equipment worn down through regular use. While tires and batteries are also not part of the bumper-to-bumper warranty, these items are usually covered under their own respective manufacturer warranties. Under Federal law, emissions installations must be covered for a minimum of two years or 24,000 miles on a vehicle. Other basic warranty timeframes will vary depending on the specific vehicle and the terms agreed by the manufacturer and/or dealership.

Battery Disconnect

To help reduce risk and improve safety, this device will automatically disconnect a vehicle’s battery from its engine if a collision has been detected.

Bed Dimensions

The measurement of a truck bed which indicates its overall storage capacity. This includes the bed’s height, width, and depth.

Bed Extender

To increase the amount of available space in a truck bed, an extender can be installed to add a safe and stable extension of bed capacity. This device is installed while a truck’s tailgate is open and is placed atop the tailgate. It creates a larger enclosure which extends past the truck bed onto the tailgate. Extenders can safely accommodate larger items into the truck bed. The enclosed space also ensures the safe transportation of these items without the risk of anything falling out of the truck bed while driving.

Bed Features

These factory-installed features provide a variety of optional accessories designed to add additional improvements to a truck bed. Accessories may also help enhance the longevity and durability of a truck bed for various uses. Features may include a bed extender, a bed cover, a bed liner, and a tonneau. These options are usually available for trucks and SUVs.

Bed Length Measurement

The total inside length of a pickup truck’s bed which is otherwise known as its cargo box. The length measurement is taken from the very front wall of the bed to the back face of the tailgate when it is closed.

Bed Liner

Typically installed in pickup truck’s beds/cargo boxes, this heavy duty installation is used to add an additional layer of protection to a truck’s body, surface, and paint coating. Liners can be made from either a plastic insert or a specialized coating sprayed onto the bed.

Bed Type

The precise type of truck bed or cargo box installed on a vehicle. Common options for pickup trucks include short, long, step-side, flare-side, dually, and flat beds. For SUVs, bed types may include either dump beds or tanks.


A horizontal line which is distinguished in a vehicle by the lower edges of several components including the windscreen, side windows, rear windows, and pillars.

Beverage Cooler

Equipped in several trucks, SUVs, and other vehicles, this storage area typically uses the air conditioning system to provide refrigeration for beverages. In some vehicles, the cooler uses an independent phase-cooling system.

Bi-Level Purge Valve

Equipped in an evaporative emissions system, this valve helps to restrict the total vapor flow moving from the charcoal canister to the intake while a vehicle is idling. Limiting the flow of this vapor is an important safety mechanism in the stable operation of a vehicle.

Biodiesel Blend

A fuel type which is created using a mixture of both plant-based diesel fuel and petroleum-based diesel fuel. In most cases, this term is usually just shorthanded to “biodiesel.”

Blind Spot

The space on the side of a vehicle where a driver either cannot effectively see or has an extremely limited view. Blind spots can be reduced with effective repositioning of side and rearview mirrors, but some vehicles cannot fully eliminate these reduced visibility areas. Drivers of larger trucks or SUVs often experience worse blind spots.

Blind Spot Detection

An electronic system which can help drivers improve safety by providing an alert concerning a vehicle’s blind spot. When sensors detect another vehicle or motorcycle in the blind spot range, the system warns drivers of its presence.

Block Heater

Electronic heater which is equipped and installed on the freeze plug hole within an engine block. This device preheats engine coolant for easier integration and operation once a vehicle is running. It is used as an aid to help a vehicle start and the engine operate more quickly during extremely cold temperatures.


Refers to the outer panels that are installed over all the electrical and mechanical components of a vehicle. The body helps to protect the internal mechanisms of a vehicle.

Body Water Drains

Holes which are installed in locations throughout a vehicle body to help excess water effectively drain out. These holes are strategically placed to prevent standing water from accumulating in multiple areas in a vehicle such as the cabin.


Foam supports which are upholstered and integrated into a vehicle’s seat. The shape of these foam installations are designed to help a driver maintain an optimal posture and sitting position while operating a vehicle.


The total diameter of all the cylinders within a vehicle’s engine. This measurement is typically denoted in inches.

Brake Booster

Vacuum-based installation which is used to amplify and improve the total foot pressure within a power braking system. The added pressure makes the braking process easier for drivers.

Brake Booster Bellcrank Pivot

Linkage pivot points which are sometimes installed behind certain vehicles’ brake booster devices.

Brake Drying

Device which helps to quickly dry wet brake pads by using light friction directly before a full stop is initiated by a vehicle’s braking system. The drying system is enabled through the antilock braking system (ABS) pump which moves the brake pads near enough to rotors to utilize friction and dry them without fully engaging them. Dry brake pads provide a much more consistent and safer braking system than wet or more slippery pads.

Brake Fluid

Fluid which is used to enable and engage the hydraulic brake system in vehicles.

Brake Lines, Brake Hoses, and Brake Connections

Tubing and their related connections which are used to transport brake fluid throughout all the various components within a vehicle’s braking system. Each component must work in harmony with all the other ones to ensure proper operation of a vehicle’s brakes.

Brake Linings

Used in a rear drum brake system, this lining is attached to the brake shoes for added resistance and durability. Linings are typically made using material that is both high-friction and heat-resistant.

Brake Master Cylinder

Device which stores accumulated brake fluid and forces it through the brake lines when the braking system is engaged after the pedal is depressed. Cylinders use a hydraulic pressure system to transport fluid throughout the braking system and effectively engage the brake to stop a vehicle.

Brake Pads

Attached to the metal backing plate of a vehicle’s braking system and made from high-friction, temperature-resistant material, these components assist in effective deceleration and stopping.

Brake Pedal

The device equipped inside a vehicle cab which is depressed by the driver to operate a vehicle’s braking system.

Brake Pedal Spring

A spring which is attached to the pedal assembly of a braking system and used to provide added resistance when an operator depresses the brake pedal. The spring also enables a pedal to return to its original position after a driver disengages it. Worn out springs can create issues with brake pedal pressure and negatively impact performance.

Braking Assist

An assistive system which provides further application of brakes in cases of immediate or panic stops. The system monitors the quickness of a brake pedal press in these immediate reaction situations. If the driver did not apply the brakes with enough power, additional force is automatically applied to the braking system.

Branded Title

A type of title which is a permanent distinction for a vehicle and reflected on the registration and other documentation, a branded distinction indicates that an automobile has been involved in an accident and experienced damage which is either not possible to repair or at a cost which is greater than the value of the vehicle itself. Branded titles may also indicate when a vehicle has been sold off for scrap. This type of designation will vary based on the specific state where the title is held. In most cases, branding titles will indicate a vehicle which has been rebuilt or significantly altered, salvaged after an accident, determined to be irreparably damaged, or recovered after it was reported stolen.

Breakover Angle

The greatest possible angle which a vehicle can progress against a sharp bump or ridge without either contacting the ridge itself or getting stuck and hanging between both front and rear axles.

Brush Guard

A tubular attachment typically made from metal which is connected to a vehicle’s front bumper. It is used to protect and shield the vehicle’s front end from plant life and other debris during off-road driving. While many cars are not equipped with this accessory, it is more common in pickup trucks, SUVs, and off-road vehicles.


Equipped on the front and rear of automobiles, these components create an added layer of protection between the frame or body and an object which makes contact with the vehicle during a collision. Bumpers help to reduce damage to the essential structural elements of a vehicle.

Buyout Amount

Refer to “Payoff Amount” for more information.