Factory Installed

Equipment within a vehicle which has been installed by the manufacturer during its initial construction. This distinguishes equipment or features which may be added after the manufacturing process by either the dealer or a vehicle’s owner. In most cases, this includes all the advertized features for a specific make, model, and year.

Factory Tuner

A vehicle model which has been equipped with significant chassis and engine upgrades compared to the base model. Unlike other upgraded vehicles, all the additional features on tuners are factory-installed and available when it is shipped out to dealers. In most cases, it is distinguished with some variation of “factory tuner” in its name or model type. Examples include the Cadillac XLR-V, The BMW “M,” and the Mercedes-Benz “AMG.” The upgrades can showcase how additional options can be equipped onto specific models and what these upgrades will look like.

Fan Hub

A mechanical connection for the radiator fan to the point where it is attached within a vehicle. The hub location may vary depending on the specific vehicle type.


Refer to “Front Engine Front Wheel Drive” for more information.


Acronym for the “Fair Isaac Corporation,” a firm which assesses, calculates, and reports consumer credit scores and reports. FICO scores are among the most important considerations for creditworthiness during the financing and leasing determination process.


The process of borrowing a specified amount of money to either partially or fully cover the cost of a vehicle purchase. Financing can come either as a loan from a financial institution to own a vehicle or as a lease over an agreed amount of time between the lessee and the lesser.

Finance and Insurance Office

Also known as the “F&I Office,” the office in a dealership where contracts for vehicle purchases and leases are created and signed between all parties. The terms of a lease or finance agreement are explained to buyers so they can fully understand all components such as the interest rate, the length of the financing, the monthly payment amounts, and more. Additionally, insurance and warranty information may also be offered and included during the finance agreement process.

Finance Incentive

Specific loan programs offered from manufacturers to car buyers to incentivize the purchase of particular vehicle makes, models, or years. In most cases incentives are only available for a limited time period for these vehicles. They may also only be offered in certain geographic areas to help reinvigorate sluggish sales or meet regional sales goals.

Finance Rate

Refer to “APR” for more information.

Flex Fuel Engine

Engine which is equipped with the ability to use more than one type of fuel to operate. An example includes vehicles which can use both E85 fuel as well as gasoline to run.

Flex Fuel Vehicle

Vehicle which can operate using at least two separate types of fuel either simultaneously or independently. Simultaneous operation allows seamless use of both fuel sources. An alternating flex fuel system activates each separate fuel system as needed during vehicle operation.

Fog Lights

Lights equipped on the front of a vehicle which are specifically designed to significantly improve visibility in foggy conditions. They provide a wide, low beam to undercut fog, reduce glare, and heighten safety during this type of weather.

Forced Induction

The forcing of air’s compression into engine cylinders using either a turbocharger or supercharger. The process of adding compressed air into the engine system helps to increase both power and overall efficiency in fuel consumption and utilization.

Four Square Worksheet

Standard form used in a dealership to help sales staff track four critical areas of a vehicle purchase during negotiations with prospective buyers. The four factors include the actual price of the automobile, the credit amount for any trade-in, the down payment a buyer is providing at the time of purchase, and the total monthly payment the financing or leasing agreement has determined. Keeping track of these data points is critical toward any successful vehicle sale.

Four Wheel Drive or 4WD

Type of drivetrain which provides direct power to all four wheels on a vehicle. 4WD automobiles use two differentials working alongside a transfer case. This allows redirection of power to each individual wheel, enhancing control and maneuverability. It is usually equipped in larger vehicles such as trucks and SUVs.

Four Wheel Steering

Feature equipped in vehicle models which provides steering control to the rear wheels as well as the front wheels. Steering is controlled by a computer and actuators, and this improved maneuvering increases stability in higher-speed cornering and other precise actions. This added stability provides a much safer level of precision in potentially dangerous driving circumstances.


Refer to “Front-Engine Rear-Wheel Drive” for more information.

Front Engine Front Wheel Drive

Also known as “FF,” refers to a vehicle which is powered using only the front wheels with the engine located oriented forward and ahead of the front axle. This type of drivetrain is more common is smaller cars or sedans. Larger vehicles may be equipped with four-wheel drive or all-wheel drive.

Front Engine Rear Wheel Drive

Also known as “FR,” a vehicle which is propelled forward with power from the rear wheels. The engine is placed forward of the front axle with the power provided for the rear wheels.

Front Brakes Specifications

Physical dimensions of all the primary components of a vehicle’s front brake rotors, including the brake ventilation type which is used. These specifications are important to understand for vehicles requiring any type of maintenance or service.

Front Mid Engine

Vehicle where an engine is equipped forward of the passenger compartment and just behind the front axle. This type of engine orientation is popular thanks to a more even weight distribution and a higher level of vehicle operational efficiency.

Front Seat Type

The types of seats located in the front of a vehicle. Examples of common front seating include bucket seats, split-bench seats, sport seats, and captain’s chairs.

Fuel Capacity

The total amount of fuel which can be held in a vehicle’s tank. Larger cars are typically equipped with higher capacity tanks and scaled downward based on size restrictions and fuel efficiency.

Fuel Cell Vehicle

Vehicle which relies on fuel cells to generate electricity and power its operation. A chemical process between oxygen in the air and hydrogen provides the catalyst to allow these cells to effectively generate electricity. Continued technological innovations improve the efficiency of these systems and have begun to increase their popularity and affordability.

Fuel Consumption

The total rate at which a vehicle uses its fuel supply during operation. Consumption rates may vary based on specific driving conditions and other related factors.

Fuel Economy

The calculation of the total amount of fuel used over a certain distance to determine the overall operational efficiency of an automobile. Can also be calculated by measuring the distance traveled over a specific volume of fluid. The measurement is often presented as “Miles Per Gallon” or “MPG.”

Fuel Filler Cap

Cap which is used to seal the fuel filler neck within a vehicle. Caps are usually made from a substance which provides an airtight seal.

Fuel Filter

Replaceable canister-shaped filtration device which is used to prevent contaminants, dust, debris, and other pollutants from reaching the engine. Filters are typically made from either metal or plastic. Regular replacement of this filtration system is essential to maintaining an engine’s continued operation.

Fuel Injection System

System within a vehicle used to directly deliver fuel into a vehicle’s engine for its operation. Fuel is atomized through a pump system which forces it through a small nozzle. This forcing increases its pressure to deliver it directly to the engine. It improves operational capacity and enhances overall fuel efficiency by preventing excess vapor loss during exhaust.

Fuel Lines and Connections

All the tubing, lines, and related connective elements used to transport fuel throughout a vehicle’s engine.

Fuel Pre-Filter

Used in diesel fuel engines, a device which filters fuel directly before its entry into the fuel pump. This filtration is one additional step to prevent foreign matter and other particulates from entering into the engine and affecting its performance and efficiency.

Fuel Pump Shutoff

Device used to automatically turn off the fuel pump within a vehicle after a collision. Sensors can detect a collision and turn the pump off to reduce the risk of a fire or vehicle explosion.

Fuel System

Type of system which is used to provide fuel to the engine and allow the operation of a vehicle. The system includes the entire collection of parts and components responsible for this delivery process. Common parts include the fuel tank, fuel lines, fuel hoses, fuel cap, fuel filter, fuel injectors, fuel pump, and carburetor in older systems.

Fuel Type

Specific type of fuel used to power a vehicle. These include standard gasoline, ethanol, E85 ethanol mixture, diesel or bio-diesel, electricity, hydrogen, and natural gas.

Fuel and Water Separator

Device built into a fuel system which separates water out from combustible fuel. While fuel filtration occurs throughout the engine’s operation, this device adds and additional method to ensure no water makes it into the engine with the fuel.